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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 45-53

Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and video head impulse tests in different stages of Meniere's disease

1 Audiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Doaa M Elmoazen
182 Omar Lotfy, Sporting, Alexandria, 21524
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2314-8667.171518

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Introduction Meniere's disease (MD) is characterized by intermittent episodes of vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural pressure. Histopathologically, endolymphatic hydrops is seen initially in the cochlear duct and the saccule; with the progression of the disease, subsequent affection of the utricle and semicircular canals (SCC) occur. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the function of the saccule, the utricle, and the three SCCs using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and video head impulse test (vHIT), respectively, in Meniere's patients and to correlate the findings with the different stages of MD. Patients and methods Forty patients diagnosed with unilateral definite MD according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery's 1995 criteria [AAO-HNS (1995) criteria] were tested. They were divided into four subgroups based on the stage of MD using the average of 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 Hz pure-tone thresholds of the worst documented audiogram during the 6-month interval before examination. A control group of 40 healthy age-matched adults were equally divided into four corresponding subgroups based on their pure-tone average. In all, 500 and 1000 Hz tone burst air conduction cVEMP and oVEMP tests, bithermal caloric test, and vHIT for all SCCs were recorded for both groups. Results The results of this study showed that the highest prevalence of abnormalities in Meniere's patients were seen in the pure tone average (PTA) (85%), followed by cVEMP (72.5%) and oVEMP (67.5%). Caloric test abnormalities follow with a lower prevalence of 32.5%. The vHIT presented the lowest prevalence of abnormalities, with 20% in the lateral canal, 7.5% in the anterior, and 5% in the posterior canal. This pattern of abnormality is in agreement with the reported pattern of hydrops formation in the vestibular system. Conclusion The findings of the current study suggest that with the advancement in the stage of MD consequent abnormal cVEMP, oVEMP, caloric, and vHIT responses occur following the histopathological evidence of progression of the disease from the saccule up to the SCCs.

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